Selected Publications

On Measuring Cognition and Cognitive Augmentation

Abstract. We are at the beginning of a new age in which artificial entities will perform significant amounts of high-level cognitive processing rivaling and even surpassing human thinking. The future belongs to those who can best collaborate with artificial cognitive entities achieving a high degree of cognitive augmentation. However, we currently lack theoretically grounded fundamental metrics able to describe human or artificial cognition much less augmented and combined cognition. How do we measure thinking, cognition, information, and knowledge in an implementation-independent way? How can we tell how much thinking an artificial entity does and how much is done by a human? How can we measure the combined and possible even emergent effect of humans working together with intelligent artificial entities? These are some of the challenges for researchers in this field. We first define a cognitive process as the transformation of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom. We then review several existing and emerging information metrics based on entropy, processing effort, quantum physics, emergent capacity, and human concept learning. We then discuss how these fail to answer the above questions and provide guidelines for future research.

Cognitive Augmentation Metrics Using Representational Information Theory

Abstract. In the coming era of cognitive augmentation, humans will work in natural, collegial, and peer-to-peer partnerships with systems able to perform expert-level cognition. However, we lack theoretically grounded fundamental metrics describing and characterizing this kind of human cognitive augmentation. The pursuit of such metrics leads us to some of the most fundamental questions about the nature of information and cognition. We define a cognitive process as the transformation of data, information, knowledge, or wisdom. We then employ representational information theory to calculate the effect a cognitive process has on the information. We then use that metric as the basis for deriving several other metrics such as cognitive gain, work, power, density, and efficiency to analyze a cognitively augmented human. We also propose a metric called the augmentation factor to indicate the level to which a human is augmented by working with one or more cognitive systems.

How Personal Cognitive Augmentation Will Lead to the Democratization of Expertise

Abstract. In the coming era of personal cognitive augmentation, humans and artificially intelligent entities, we call cogs, will work together in a natural and collegial partnership where the total amount of cognition is a combination of human and artificial thinking. Advances in cognitive computing, deep learning, and several other fields make possible cost-effective development of personal cogs possessing expert-level performance in a defined field. If a human can be an expert at something a cog will be developed with that expertise in the near future. When such cogs are available to everyone via Cloud, Internet, and our everyday devices, they will give average humans the ability to perform at the level of an expert in any domain—something we call the democratization of expertise. This will lead to dramatic social, cultural, and economic changes as all revolutions do.

The Cogs Are Coming:
The Cognitive Augmentation Revolution

Abstract. We are at the beginning of a new era in human history–the cognitive augmentation era. Until now, humans have had to do all of the thinking. The future will make it possible for humans to partner with cognitive systems doing some of the thinking themselves and in many ways superior to humans. Together, humans and “cogs” achieve a higher level of cognition than is possible working alone. Current cognitive systems are expensive large-scale pieces of technology affordable only to the biggest companies and government agencies. However, we foresee the evolution of less expensive cognitive systems tailored to individuals and available to the mass market. When these cogs become available, anyone will be able to achieve expert-level competence in any domain–something we call the democratization of expertise. The next few years will see a transformation of how we work, play, and socialize revolving around computer-augmented human cognition. In the coming era, cogs will be everywhere in our lives and become our teachers, co- workers, partners, advisors, counselors, pets, and even our friends. The cogs are coming.

ASCUE 2067:
How We Will Attend Posthumously

Abstract. The ASCUE conference is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year making me wonder if we will be able to attend the 100th conference in 2067. By then, many of us may very well be biologically deceased. However, there is technology currently in development making it possible for a digital version of ourselves to attend not only the 2067 conference but also all future ASCUE conferences even after our biological bodies have expired. A new class of computer system able to perform human-level cognition, called cognitive systems is under development. When combined with advances in deep learning, natural language understanding, and big data analysis, a kind of intelligent virtual digital assistant we call a "cognitive colleague" will emerge. This type of cognitive system augments human intelligence by serving as the human’s colleague and confidant for years, even decades. The next generation of researcher may engage with one or more of these cogs while developing his or her contributions. This makes the cog an immortal partner able to outlive its human collaborator. Imagine attendees in 2067 interactively conversing with our cogs that were right there with all of us great minds throughout the remainder of our careers.

Innovation assurance using BACUP and Jobs Theory

Abstract. Companies and organizations use various innovation governance structures, processes and metrics to make decisions about allocation of resources to the development of an innovative idea. Although many metrics measuring the process of innovation and the performance of the enterprise have been developed, a fundamentally solid and complete metric speaking to the quality and viability of the innovative idea itself is lacking. The business, applied innovation, creativity, unmet user needs and problem-solving (BACUP) model of innovation quality is proposed as such a metric based on viewing innovation from the five different viewpoints mentioned in its definition. BACUP is shown to facilitate discussion and analysis in innovation theory and is proposed as a tool allowing any innovation governance structure to achieve innovation assurance by mitigating risk and uncertainty and maximizing an innovation’s chance for success.

Incorporating Innovation Into Iterative Software Development Using The Inventive Problem Solving Methodology

Abstract. Iterative software methodologies allow development teams to be agile in their response to changing requirements. However, the software development team is usually at the mercy of requirements changes, rather than being part of the project engineering staff defining the changes to the solution architecture. Therefore, projects tend to implement inferior solutions. Integrating a project-level innovation technique called Inventive Problem Solving into agile software development methodologies such as the spiral model, the Rational Unified Process, and Scrum, allows the development team to affect the overall solution architecture utilizing their expertise in information technology to the maximum benefit. As a result, more creative, innovative, and efficient solutions to the problem are conceived and implemented.

I-TRIZ: Anyone Can Innovate on Demand

Abstract. Would it be nice to have Yoshiro Nakamatsu, the world record holder for the most number of patents, consult with you on your next project? Would it be wonderful to bring Thomas Edison in anytime you needed some innovative insight for a day? What if you could consult with Nikola Tesla when faced with your next critical problem? How much better could you solve problems if you could bring the collective innovative force of the entire human race to bear on your next project? This is the promise of I-TRIZ. I-TRIZ is the modern extension, and ongoing development of TRIZ which begun some 65 years ago. I-TRIZ represents the distillation of human innovative thought down to a set of principles, tools, and methodologies that can be taught to anyone making it possible for anyone to innovate on demand. TRIZ, I-TRIZ, and new educational initiatives are described as well as potential long-term implications of everyone having the ability to innovate on demand.

HU Goes There: New problem-solving tool should have a place in your quality arsenal

H. James Harrington, Ron Fulbright, Alla Zusman, “HU Goes There: New problem-solving tool should have a place in your quality arsenal,” Quality Progress, Vol. 44, No. 9, September 2011.

Teaching Innovation to Undergraduates in Information Technology

Ron Fulbright, SIGITE 2011 conference, October 2011. Published in the proceedings.

Knowledge-Based Tools for Software-Supported Innovation and Problem Solving

Boris Zlotin, Alla Zusman, Ron Fulbright, Proceedings of the TRIZCON 2010 Conference, October 2010.

Using an "ideality-first" methodology to evolve the requirements of a software product

Ron Fulbright, Chad Camara, Suzy Sears TRIZCON 2008 conference, Kent State University, 2008.

Innostructure: Managing Innovation as Business-Critical Infrastructure

Ron Fulbright, Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology,  pp. 194-196, ed. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Proceedings of the 2007 Information Resource Management Association International Conference, Vancouver, BC, May 2007.

Using I-TRIZ for Computer Security Innovation

Ron Fulbright, Proceedings of the Computer Security Conference 2007, Coastal Carolina University, Myrtle Beach, SC, April 2007.

Publications - Full List

Refereed Journals

Ron Fulbright, “On Measuring Cognition and Cognitive Augmentation,” HCI International 2018, Las Vegas, NV, July 2018.

Ron Fulbright, “Cognitive Augmentation Metrics Using Representational Information Theory,” HCI International 2017, Vancouver, July 2017.

Ron Fulbright, “ASCUE 2067: How We Will Attend Posthumously,” Proceedings of the 2017 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Conference, June 2017.

Ron Fulbright, “Innovation Assurance Using BACUP and Jobs Theory,” International Journal of Innovation Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2017.

 

Ron Fulbright, “How Personal Cognitive Augmentation Will Lead to the Democratization of Expertise,” The Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems, June 2016.

 

Ron Fulbright, “The Cogs Are Coming: The Coming Revolution of Cognitive Computing,” Proceedings of the 2016 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Conference, June 2016.

 

Ron Fulbright, “The next big thing we can’t live without? Fulbright’s Half-Life theory gives us some ideas,” Proceedings of the 2015 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Conference, June 2015.

 

Ron Fulbright, “Incorporating Innovation Into Iterative Software Development Using The Inventive Problem Solving Methodology,” International Journal of Innovation Science, Vol. 5, No 4, December 2013.

Ron Fulbright, “Teaching Innovation to Undergraduates in Information Technology,” SIGITE 2011 conference, October 2011. Published in the proceedings.
 

H. James Harrington, Ron Fulbright, Alla Zusman, “HU Goes There: New problem-solving tool should have a place in your quality arsenal,” Quality Progress, Vol. 44, No. 9, September 2011.

Ron Fulbright, “I-TRIZ: Anyone Can Innovate on Demand,” International Journal of Innovation Science, Vol. 3, No. 2, June 2011.

Ron Fulbright, “Adding Innovation to the Spiral Development Model,” Proceedings of the 7th Annual USC Upstate Research Symposium, April 2011.

Ron Fulbright, Christopher Ernst, Kirstin Bolt, “Innovation with I-TRIZ in a 3D Virtual World,” 2010 USC Upstate Undergraduate Research Journal, Fall 2010.

Boris Zlotin, Alla Zusman, Ron Fulbright, “Knowledge-Based Tools for Software Supported Innovation and Problem Solving.” Proceedings of the TRIZCON 2010 Conference, October 2010.

Ron Fulbright and Donna Sandor, “Using Semi-Automated Forms for Student Advising,” Proceedings of the 2010 Association of Small Computer Users in Education (ASCUE) Conference, June 2010.

Ron Fulbright, Chad Camara, Suzy Spears, “Using an "ideality-first" methodology to evolve the requirements of a software product,” Proceedings of the TRIZCON 2008 Conference, April 2008.

Ron Fulbright, “Viewing Human Organizations as Poly-Emergent Systems and the Importance of Distance,” Proceedings of the 2007 International Multi-Conference on Society, Cybernetics and Informatics: IMSCI 2007, July 2007.

Ron Fulbright, “Innostructure: Managing Innovation as a Strategic Business Resource,” Managing Worldwide Operations and Communications with Information Technology,  pp. 194-196, ed. Mehdi Khosrow-Pour, Proceedings of the 2007 Information Resource Management Association International Conference, Vancouver, BC, May 2007.

 

Ron Fulbright, “Using I-TRIZ for Computer Security Innovation,” Proceedings of the Computer Security Conference 2007, Myrtle Beach, SC, April 2007.

 

Ron Fulbright, “Innostructure: The need for corporate infrastructure supporting innovation,” Business Innovation, vol. 1, no. 1, Ideation International, Inc., September 2006. This is an electronic magazine available on the Internet at http://www.ccesoft.com/e-zine/Innostructure.htm. Invited article.

Ron Fulbright and Richard L. Routh, “How IT Professionals Keep from being Outsourced” Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Information Technology Education, pp. 188-193, October 2004

 

Ron Fulbright, “Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in IT with PINE-TRIZ,” Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Information Technology Education, pp. 38-42, October 2004

Ron Fulbright, “TRIZ and Software Fini,” TRIZ Journal, August 2004. Electronic journal available on the Internet at http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2004/08/02.pdf, August 2004.

Ron Fulbright, “Exploit Corporate Knowledge,” .NET Magazine, Fawcette Publications, December 2002. Invited article.

 

Ron Fulbright, “Using Web Services to Extend SharePoint in Distributed Enterprises,” .NET Magazine, Fawcette Publications, January 2002. Invited article.

 

Ron Fulbright and Larry M. Stephens, “A New Metric for the Information Content of Strings,” Proceedings of the 34th Association for Computing Machinery Southeast Conference, pp. 87-91, April 1996.

Ron Fulbright and Larry M. Stephens, “SWAMI: An Autonomous Mobile Robot for Inspection of Nuclear Waste Storage Facilities,” Autonomous Robots, vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 225-235, September 1995.

 

Ron Fulbright and Larry M. Stephens, “Robotic Inspection of Nuclear Waste Storage Facilities,” Radwaste Magazine, vol. 2, no. 6. November 1995.

TRIZ and Software Fini

Ron Fulbright, TRIZ Journal, August 2004. Electronic journal available on the Internet at http://www.triz-journal.com/archives/2004/08/02.pdf, August 2004.

Books

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